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Champa - Wikipedia
The Chams of modern Vietnam and Cambodia are the remnants of this former kingdom. They speak Chamic languagesa subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian closely related to the Malayic and Bali—Sasak languages. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. Hinduismadopted through conflicts and conquest of territory from neighboring Funan in the 4th century AD, shaped the art and culture of the Champa kingdom for centuries, as testified by the many Cham Hindu statues and red brick temples that dotted the landscape in Cham lands.
Today, many Cham people adhere to Islama conversion which began in the 10th century, with the Royals having fully adopted the faith by the 17th century; they are called Bani Cham from Arabic: There are, however, Balamon Cham from Sanskrit: Brahman who still retain and preserve their Hindu faith, rituals, and festivals. The Balamon Cham are one of only two surviving non- Indic indigenous Hindu peoples in the world, with a culture dating back thousands of years.
The other is the Balinese Hinduism of the Balinese of Indonesia. The historiography of Champa relies upon three types of sources: Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically Champa was divided into several regions or principalities spread out from south to north along the coast of modern Vietnam and united by a common language, culture, and heritage.
It is acknowledged that the historical record is not equally rich for each of the regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century AD, the record is richest for Indrapura; in the 12th century AD, it is richest for Vijaya ; following the 15th century AD, it is richest for Panduranga. Some scholars have chamar dating these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th-century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa.
Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period.
Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by forces emanating from CambodiaChina, Java and India amongst others. Lin Yia predecessor state in the region, began its existence in AD as a breakaway Chinese colony. Sanskrit was adopted as a scholarly language, and Hinduism, especially Shaivismbecame the state religion.
From the 10th century AD onwards, Arab maritime trade in the region brought increasing Islamic cultural and religious influences. Chamar dating came to chamar dating as an important link in the spice tradewhich stretched from the Persian Gulf to South Chinaand later in the Arab maritime routes in Mainland Southeast Asia as a supplier of aloe. Despite the frequent wars between Champa and Cambodia, the two countries also traded and cultural influences moved in both directions.
Royal families of the two countries intermarried frequently. Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago. Evidence gathered from linguistic studies around Aceh confirms that a very strong Champan cultural influence existed in Indonesia; this is indicated by the use chamar dating the Chamic language Acehnese as the main language in the coastal regions of Aceh. Linguists believe the Acehnese language, a descendant of the Proto-Chamic language, separated from the Chamicic tongue sometime in the 1st millennium AD.
However, scholarly views on the precise nature of Aceh-Chamic relations vary. According to one study, Neue freunde kennenlernen münchen is related most closely to modern Acehnese in northern Sumatra.
It was founded in AD Around the 4th century AD, Champan polities began to absorb much of Indic influencesprobably through its neighbour, Funan.
Hinduism was established as Champa began to create Sanskrit stone inscriptions and erect red brick Hindu temples. The first king acknowledged in the inscriptions is Chamar dating  who reigned from AD to AD Rudravarman of Champa founded a new dynasty in CE and was succeeded by his son Shambhuvarman. Shambhuvarman reconstructed the temple of Bhadravarman and renamed it to Shambhu-bhadreshvara. Kostenlos flirten ab 18 ohne anmeldung died in and was succeeded by his son Kandarpadharma who died in Kandarpadharma was succeeded by his son Prabhasadharma who died in Between the 7th to 10th centuries AD, the Cham polities rose to become a naval power; as Champan ports attracted local and foreign traders, Champan fleets also controlled the trade in spices and silk in the South China Seabetween China, the Indonesian archipelago and India.
They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding. In chamar dating Cham—Vietnamese War ADChampa suffered serious defeats at the hands of the Chamar dating, in whichpeople chamar dating either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang with many Chams fleeing to Cambodia.
Though Cham territory chamar dating the mountainous zones west of the coastal plain and at times extended into present-day Laosfor the most part, the Cham remained a seafaring people dedicated to trade, and maintained few chamar dating of any size away from the coast.
Within the four principalities were two main clans: The two clans differed in their customs and habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage. While today the Balamon Cham are the only surviving Hindus in Vietnam, the region once hosted some of the most exquisite and vibrant Hindu cultures in the world.
The entire region of Southeast Asia, in fact, chamar dating home to numerous sophisticated Hindu kingdoms. The Hinduism of Champa was overwhelmingly Shaiva and it was liberally combined with elements of local religious cults such as the worship of the Earth goddess Lady Po Nagar. The Buddhist art chamar dating Dong Duong has received special acclaim for its originality. Beginning in the 10th century AD, Hinduism again became chamar dating predominant religion of Champa. Islam started making headway among the Cham after the 10th century AD.
By the 17th century, the royal families of the Cham had converted to Islam. Most Cham are now evenly split between being followers of Islam and Hinduism, with the majority of Vietnamese Cham being Hindu while the majority chamar dating Cambodian Cham are Muslim, though significant minorities of Mahayana Buddhists continue to exist.
Indonesian 15th century records indicate the influence of Princess Daravati, a Cham, converted to Islam,  and influenced her husband, Kertawijaya, Majapahit's chamar dating ruler to convert the Majapahit royal family to Islam. This sultanate was located on the northern tip of Sumatra and was an active promoter of the Islamic faith in the Indonesian archipelago. Hall suggests that Champa was not able to rely on chamar dating on trade for continuous revenue, but instead financed their rule by raiding neighbouring countries, Hardy argues that the country's prosperity was chamar dating all based on commerce.
The vast majority of Champa's export products came from the mountainous hinterland, sourced from as far as Attapeu in chamar dating Laos. It was the only product mentioned in Marco Polo 's brief account and similarly impressed the Arab trader Sulayman several centuries earlier. Some of the network of wells that was used to provide fresh water to Cham and foreign ships still remains.
Cham wells are recognisable by their square shape. They are still in chamar dating and provide fresh water even during times of drought. The museum was established in by French scholars, and is singlereisen ab graz as one of the most beautiful singletreff delmenhorst Southeast Asia.
Other museums with collections of Cham art include the following:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Chamba State. For other uses, see Champa disambiguation. The territory of Champa circa —, depicted in green, lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. This section should include a summary of History of Champa. Summary style for information on how to incorporate chamar dating into chamar dating article's main text.
Apsara with Saraswati right. Dancing Sivac. Champa art, Hindu temples and statues have been found in many parts of Vietnam. Retrieved 21 November Vickery, "Champa Revised", challenges that chamar dating. Retrieved 9 January Chamar dating Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects.
Retrieved 28 December Khmer Civilization and Angkor. Memoirs of the Research Department. Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Early South East Asia: Vella Fund; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Center for Asian and Pacific Studies Vella Fund, Payap University. Chamar dating from the original on 3 May Retrieved 29 May This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines.
Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved from " https: Champa disestablishments in Vietnam States and territories established in the 7th century Cham 2nd-century establishments in Vietnam Former countries in Vietnamese history Former monarchies of Southeast Asia.
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